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Dərs


Növbəti dərsə keçid və ya cari dərsin davamı səhifənin aşağı hissəsindədir.


Dərs 39: 1/5 - Qrammatika dərsləri. (seçdiyiniz səviyyə: beginner)

Sual və inkar cümlələri

Untitled Document

Maraqlandığınızı və ya heyrətləndiyinizi bildirmək üçün have you? / is it? / can't he? və s. tipli suallardan istifadə edə bilərsiniz:

  • 'You're late.'    'Oh, am I? I'm sorry.'
  • 'I was ill last week.'     'Were you? I didn't know that.'
  • 'It's raining again.'    'Is it? It was sunny ten minutes ago.'
  • 'There's a letter for you.'     'Is there? Where is it?'
  • 'Bill can't drive.'    'Can't he? I didn't know that.'
  • 'I'm not hungry'    'Aren't you? I am.'
  • 'Sue isn't at work today'    'Isn't she? Is she ill?'

İndiki zaman üçün do/does, keçmiş zaman üçün isə did köməkçi felindən istifadə edin:

  • 'I speak four languages.'    'Do you? Which ones?'
  • 'Tom doesn't eat meat.'    'Doesn't he? Does he eat fish?'
  • 'Linda got married last week.'    'Did she? Really?'

Nəqli cünlələrin sonunda have you? / is it? / can't she? və s. tipindi kiçik suallardan istifadə edə bilərsiniz. Bu cür suallar ingilis dilində "question tags" adlanır:
Nəqli cümlədən sonra —> inkar question tag
İnkar cümlədən sonra —> təsdiq question tag

It's a beautiful day,

isn't it?

Yes, it's lovely.

Sally lives in London,

doesn't she?

Yes, that's right.

You closed the window,

didn't you?

Yes, I think so.

Those shoes are nice,

aren't they?

Yes, very nice.

Tom will be here soon,

won't he?

Yes, probably.


That isn't your car,

is it?

No, my car is white.

You haven't met my mother.

have you?

No, I haven't.

Sally doesn't smoke,

does she?

No, she doesn't.

You won't be late.

will you?

No, I'm never late.

 

Bir qayda olaraq tooeither ədatlarından cümlənin sonunda istifadə olunur:

Too təsdiqdə olan feldən sonra işlədilir:

Either inkarda olan feldən sonra işlədilir:

• A: I'm happy.

• A: I'm not happy.

B: I'm happy too.

B: I'm not happy either, (not 'I'm not... too')

• A: I enjoyed the film.

• A: I can't cook.

B: I enjoyed it too.

B: I can't either, (not 'I can't too')

• Mary is a doctor. Her husband is a

• Bill doesn't watch TV. He doesn't read

doctor too.

newspapers either.


So am I - mən də ('So I am'- yox), Neither have I - nə də mən ('Neither I have' - yox).

so

am/is/are ...

was/were ...

do/does ...

did ...

neither

have/has ...

can ...

will ...

would ...


so am I = I am too

neither am I = I'm not either

so have I = I have too (etc.):

neither can 1 = I can't either (etc.):

• A:

I'm working.

• A:

I haven't got a key.

B:

So am I. (= I'm working too)

B:

Neither have I. (= I haven't either)

• A:

I was late for work today.

• A:

Ann can't cook.

B:

So-was John. (= John was late too)

B:

Neither can Tom. (= Tom can't either)

• A:

I work in a bank.

• A:

I won't (= will not) be here tomorrow.

B:

So do I.

B:

Neither will I.

• A:

We went to the cinema last night.

• A:

I never go to the cinema.

B:

Did you? So did we.

B:

Neither do I.

• A:
B:

I'd like to go to Australia. So would I.


• A: : B:

You can also use Nor ... (= Neither ...):
I'm not married.
B: Nor am I. or Neither am I.

İnkar cümlələrində not (n't) -dan istifadı olunur:

positive

—> negative

 

am

am not ('m not)

I'm not tired.

is

is not (isn't or's not)

It isn't (or It's not) raining.

are

are not (aren't or 're not)

They aren't (or They're not) here.

was

was not (wasn't)

Julian wasn't hungry.

were

were not (weren't)

The shops weren't open.

have

have not (haven't)

1 haven't finished my work.

has

has not (hasn't)

Sue hasn't got a car.

will

will not (won't)

We won't be here tomorrow.

can

cannot (can't)

George can't drive.

could

could not (couldn't)

I couldn't sleep last night.

must

must not (mustn't)

I mustn't forget to phone Ann.

should

should not (shouldn't)

You shouldn't work so hard.

would

would not (wouldn't)

I wouldn't like to be an actor.


positive

—>

negative

I want to go out.

—>

I don't want to go out.

They work hard.

—>

They don't work hard.

Liz plays the guitar.

—>

Liz doesn't play the guitar.

My father likes hisjob.

—>

My father doesn't like hisjob.

I got up early this morning.

—>

I didn't get up early this morning.

They worked hard yesterday.

—>

They didn't work hard yesterday.

We played tennis.

—>

We didn't play tennis.

Diane had a bath.

—>

Diane didn't have a bath.

 

Don't ...

Look!

—>

Don't look!

Wait for me.

—>

Don't wait for me.

 

Bəzən do əsas fel kimi işlənir (don't do / doesn't do / didn't do):

Do something!

—>

Don't do anything!

Sue does a lot at weekends.

—>

Sue doesn't do much at weekends.

I did what you said.

—>

I didn't do what you said.


Nəqli

 

Sual

subject verb

 

verb subject

I am late.

—>

Am I late?

That seat is free.

—>

Is  that seat free?

She was angry.

—>

Why was  she angry?

David has gone.

—>

Where has  David gone?

You have got a car.

—>

Have  you got a car?

They will be here soon.

—>

When will  they be here?

Paula can swim.

—>

Can Paula swim?

Söz sırasında diqqətli olun: isim ilk feldən sonra gəlir:

  • Where has David gone? ('Where has gone David?' - yox)
  • Are those people waiting for something? ('Are waiting ... ?' - yox)
  • When was the telephone invented? ('When was invented ... ?' - yox)

İndiki zamanda do/does, keçmiş zamanda did köməkçi felindən istifadə olunur:

Nəqli

 

Sual

They work hard.

—>

Do they work hard?

You watch television.

—>

How often do you watch television?

Chris works hard.

—>

Does Chris work hard?

She gets up early.

—>

What time does she get up?

They worked hard.

—>

Did they work hard?

You had dinner.

—>

What did you have for dinner?

She got up early.

—>

What time did she get up?


Bəzən do əsas feldir (do you do / did he do etc.):

  • What do you usually do at weekends?
  • 'What does your brother do?'   'He works in a bank.'
  • 'I broke my finger last week.'   'How did you do that?' ('How did you that?' - yox)

Why isn't ... ? / Why don't ... ? etc. (Why inkar):

  • Where's John? Why isn't he here? ( 'Why he isn't here?' - yox)
  • Why can't Paula come to the meeting tomorrow? ('Why Paula can't ... ?' - yox)
  • Why didn't you phone me last night?

Aşağıdakı suallarda who/what mübtədadır:

  • Who lives in this house? (= somebody lives in it — who?) ('Who does live?' - yox)
  • What happened? (= something happened - what?) ('What did happen? - yox)
  • What's happening? (What's = What is)
  • Who's got my key? (Who's = Who has)

Aşağıdakı suallarda isə , who/what tamamlıqdır:

  • Who did you meet yesterday? (= you met somebody — who?)
  • What did Paul say? (= Paul said something - what?)
  • Who are you phoning?
  • What was Sylvia wearing?

Müqayisə edin :

1. George likes oranges.

  • Who likes oranges? — George.
  • What does George like? — Oranges.

2. Jill won some money.

  • Who won some money? — Jill.
  • What did Jill win? — A hundred pounds.

İnsanlar (somebody) barədə who sual sözündən istifadə edin. İnsanlar (something) barədə what sual sözündən istifadə edin:

    • Who is your favourite singer?
    • What is your favourite song?


    Who ... ? / What ... ? / Where ... ? / Which ... ? sual sözləri ilə başlayan cümlələrdə sözönülər (to/from/with etc.) bir qayda olaraq cümlənin sonunda işlənir:

    • 'Where are you from?'    'I'm from Thailand.'
    • 'John was afraid.'    'What was he afraid of?'
    • 'Who do these books belong to?'    'They're mine.'
    • Tom's father is in hospital.'    'Which hospital is he in?'
    • 'Kate is going on holiday.'    'Who with?' / 'Who is she going with?'
    • 'I want to talk to you.'    'What about?' / 'What do you want to talk to me about?'


    What's (= What is) it like? = bu haqda mənə nəsə danış — o, yaxşı ya pisdir, böyük ya kiçikdir, köhnə ya təzədir? və s.
    'What is it like?' dedikdə, like sözönüdür. Bu like feli deyildir ('Do you like your new house?' və s.)

    • A: There's a new restaurant in our street. B: What's it like? Is it good? A: I don't know. I haven't eaten there yet.
    • A: What's your new teacher like? B: She's very good. We learn a lot.
    • A: I met Linda's parents yesterday. B: Did you? What are they like? A: They're very friendly.
    • A: Did you have a nice holiday? What was the weather like? B: It was lovely. The sun shone every day.

    What isim (What colour ... ? / What kind ... ? etc.)

    • What colour is your car?                         • What colour are your eyes?
    • What size is this shirt?                             • What make is your TV set?
    • What time is it?                                       • What day is it today?
    • What kind of job do you want? (or What type of job ... ? / What sort of job ... ?)

    İsim olmadan What :

    • What's your favourite colour?
    • What do you want to do this evening?

    Which isim (əşyalar və ya insanlar):

    • Which train did you catch - the 9.50 or the 10.30?
    • Which doctor did you see — Doctor Ellis, Doctor Gray or Doctor Hill?

    Which sual sözündən sonra isim olmadıqda onu əşyalar haqqında sual vermək üçün istifadə edirik (insanlar haqqında yox):

    • Which is bigger — Canada or Australia?

    Who sual sözündən sonra isim olmadıqda onu insanlar haqqında sual vermək üçün istifadə edirik:

    • Who is taller - Bill or Gerry? ('Which is taller?' - yox)

    What or which?
    Kiçik sayda ehtimallardan danışdıqda which sual sözündən istifadə olunur:

    • We can go this way or that way. Which way shall we go?
    • There are four umbrellas here. Which is yours?

    What daha ümumidir:

    • What is the capital of Argentina?
    • What sort of music do you like?

    Müqayisə edin :

    • What colour are his eyes? ( 'Which colour?' - yox)
      Which colour do you prefer, pink or yellow?

    • What is the longest river in the world?
      Which is the longest river — the Mississippi, the Amazon or the Nile?

    How ... ? - Necə ... ?

    • 'How was the party last night?'    'It was great.'
    • 'How do you usually go to work?'    'By bus.'

    How sifər/zərf (how tall / how old / how often etc.):

    How

    tall are you?'   'I'm 1 metre 70.'
    big is the house?'   'Not very big.'
    old is your mother?'    'She's 45.'
    far is it from here to the airport?'    'Five kilometres.'
    often do you use your car?'   'Every day'
    long have they been married?'   'Ten years.'
    much was the meal?'    'Twenty pounds.'

    How long does it take...? - Nə qədər müddətə... ?

    • How long does it take by train from London to Manchester?
    • It takes two hours by train from London to Manchester.
    • How long does it take by car from your house to the station?
    • It takes ten minutes by car from my bouse to the station?

     

    does

     

    (you)

     

    How long

    did

    it take

    (Ann)

    to ... ?

     

    will

     

    (them)

     


     

    takes

    (me)

    a week

     

    It

    took

    (Ann)

    a long time

    to ...

     

    will take

    (them)

    three hours

     

    I started reading the book on Monday. I finished it on Wednesday evening.
    It took me three days to read it.

    • How long does it take to fly from London to Madrid?
    • It takes a long time to learn a language.
    • It doesn't take long to cook an omelette.
    • It takes me 20 minutes to get to work.
    • 'I came by train.'    'Did you? How long did it take (to get here)?
    • It took Tom an hour to do his shopping.
    • Did it take you a long time to find a job?
    • How long will it take me to learn to drive?
    • It will take us an hour to cook the dinner.

Diqqət. Qeydiyyatdan keçib hesaba daxil olmayan istifadəçilər ancaq hər dərsin birinci hissəsini görə bilir. Eləcə də testləri yalnız hesaba daxil olmuş qeydiyyatlı istifadəçilər görə və həll edə bilər. Dərslərdən tam faydalanmaq üçün əgər hesabınız varsa sağ sütunda müvafiq bölmədən email-parol yazaraq daxil olun, yoxdursa, qeydiyyatdan keçin.


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