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Dərs


Növbəti dərsə keçid və ya cari dərsin davamı səhifənin aşağı hissəsindədir.


Dərs 39: 1/5 - Qrammatika dərsləri. (seçdiyiniz səviyyə: advanced)

Should in that-clauses; the present subjunctive

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We can sometimes report advice, orders, requests, suggestions, etc. about things that need to be done or are desirable using a that-clause with should bare infinitive:

  • They have proposed that Jim should move to their London office.
  • We advised that the company should not raise its prices.

After should we often use be past participle (passive) or be adjective:

  • They directed that the building should be pulled down.
  • We insist that the money should be available to all students in financial difficulties.

In formal contexts, particularly in written English, we can often leave out should and use only the base form of the verb (that is, the form you would look up in a dictionary). This form is the present subjunctive and is used when we talk about bringing about the situation expressed in the that-clause. Note that although they are called 'present' and 'past' subjunctive, they do not refer to present and past time:

  • They have proposed that Jim move to their London office.
  • They directed that the building be pulled down.

To make a negative form, we use not (not 'do not') before the verb:

  • We advised that the company not raise its prices.

In less formal contexts we can use ordinary forms of the verb instead of the subjunctive. Compare:

  • I suggested that he should give up golf, (negative: ...that he shouldn't give up...)
  • I suggested that he give up golf, (more formal) (negative: ...that he not give up...)
  • I suggested that he gives up golf, (less formal) (negative: ...that he doesn't give up...)

Other verbs that can be used in a reporting clause before a that-clause with either should or the subjunctive include advise, ask, beg, command, demand, direct, insist, instruct, intend, order, prefer, propose, recommend, request, require, stipulate, suggest, urge, warn. Notice that we can also use that-clauses with should after reporting clauses with nouns related to these verbs:

  • The police issued an order that all weapons (should) be handed in immediately.
  • The weather forecast gave a warning that people (should) prepare for heavy snow.

We can also use should or sometimes the subjunctive in a that-clause after it be adjective such as advisable, appalling, (in)appropriatc, (in)conceivable, crucial, essential, imperative, important, obligatory, (un)necessary, urgent, vital:

  • It is inappropriate that he (should) receive the award again, (or ...that he receives...)

We can use should in a that-clause when we talk about our own reaction to something we are reporting, particularly after be adjective (e.g. amazed, amused, anxious, astounded, concerned, disappointed, shocked, surprised, upset). Compare:

  • I am concerned that she should think I stole the money and
  • I am concerned that she thinks I stole the money, (not ...that she think I stole...)

Notice that when we leave out should in sentences like this we use an ordinary tense, not a subjunctive. There is usually very little difference in meaning between sentences like this with and without should. We leave out should in less formal contexts.

We can use should in a that-clause to talk about both a situation that exists now:

  • It's not surprising that they should be seen together - they're brothers,
    or one that may exist in the future:
  • We believe it is important that she should take the exam next year.

If we are talking about an intention or plan, we can often use a subjunctive rather than should:

  • I've arranged that she come to the first part of the meeting, (or ...that she should come.../ ...that she comes.../ ...for her to come...)

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