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Dərs


Növbəti dərsə keçid və ya cari dərsin davamı səhifənin aşağı hissəsindədir.


Dərs 38: 1/5 - Qrammatika dərsləri. (seçdiyiniz səviyyə: advanced)

Vasitəli nitqdə isim və sifətlər

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Reporting using nouns:

We sometimes report people's words and thoughts using a noun in the reporting clause followed by a reported clause beginning with that, a ro-infinitive-, or wh-word. Most of these nouns are related to reporting verbs (acknowledgement - acknowledge, statement - state, etc.). Notice that when we report using nouns and adjectives the exact words that were said are not necessarily reported. Instead we might report what was said in our own words, or report that something was said without reporting what was said.

* Nouns followed by a that-clause include acknowledgement, advice, allegation,announcement, answer, argument, claim, comment, conclusion, decision, explanation, forecast, guarantee, indication, observation, promise, recommendation, reply, speculation, statement, suggestion, threat, warning:

  • The claim is often made that smoking causes heart disease.
  • The jury came to the conclusion that the woman was guilty.

Notice that we don't usually leave out that in sentences like this (bax: dərs 33).


*Nouns followed by a to-infinitive clause include decision, encouragement, instruction, invitation, order, promise, recommendation, refusal, threat, warning:

  • I accepted Louisa's invitation ro visit her in Rome.
  • He was delighted with his portrait and gave me every encouragement to take up painting again.

Notice that some of these nouns can also be followed by a that-clause:

  • They carried out their threat ro dismiss workers on strike. (or ...their threat that they would dismiss workers on strike.)


* Nouns followed by a wh-clause include explanation, discussion, issue, problem, question. We usually use of after these nouns in reporting:

  • John raised the question of when the money would be collected.
  • Our previous meeting looked at the issue of how to increase income.


After many of the nouns listed above we can use as to wh-clause or as to wh-word ro-infinitive to introduce the subject of a question or topic discussed or thought about (bax: dərs 34). Notice that an alternative preposition can usually be used instead of as to:

  • She asked my advice as to what subject she should study at university. (or ...advice on...)
  • There was some discussion as to whether the price included tax or not. (or ...discussion of...)
  • Before we left we gave them strict instructions as to how to cook it. (or about how to...)


Reporting using adjectives:

A number of adjectives can be used to report a speaker's feelings or opinion about a situation. Some are followed by a that-clause. These include adamant, agreed, angry, annoyed, certain, grateful, insistent, sure:

  • The builders are certain that they'll be finished by the end of the week.

Adjectives expressing uncertainty are usually followed by a wh-chuse. These include doubtful (usually whether), uncertain, not certain, unsure, not sure:

  • Scientists aren't sure where the remains of the spacecraft will come to land.

Some are usually followed by a preposition (followed by a noun phrase). Here are some examples together with the most common preposition(s) following them: apologetic, complimentary, insulting, tactful ( about something); critical, dismissive, scornful ( of somebody/something); abusive, sympathetic ( to/towards somebody):

  • Today's newspapers are very critical of the President's decision to appoint Mr Walters.
  • When I asked him what he thought of my new suit, he was quite insulting about it.

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