İngiliscə ünsiyyət
  Rusca ünsiyyət  

Online dİl kursuna qoşulun
Ödənişsiz olaraq (*) qrammatika öyrənin, testlər həll edin, audio yazılar dinləyin, tərcüməli mətnlər oxuyun, 132678 istifadəçi ilə ingilis dilində ünsiyyət qurun, il boyu davam edən müsabiqədə iştirak edib müxtəlif hədiyyələr qazanma şansı əldə edin...
Online ingilis, rus və ərəb dili kursu - Dərs

Dərs


Növbəti dərsə keçid və ya cari dərsin davamı səhifənin aşağı hissəsindədir.


Dərs 37: 1/5 - Qrammatika dərsləri. (seçdiyiniz səviyyə: advanced)

Vasitəli nitqdə modal fellər

Untitled Document

When there is a modal verb in the original statement, suggestion, etc., it sometimes changes when we report what was said or thought. The changes are summarised here:

modal verb in original

modal verb in report

could, would, should, might, needn't, ought to, used to, could have, should have, etc.

could, would, should, might, needn't, ought to, used to, could have, should have, etc. (i.e.no change)

will, can, may

would, could, might
will, can, may (existing or future situations and present tense verb in reporting clause)
will or would, can or could, may or might (existing or future situations and past tense verb in reporting clause)

shall

would, should (offers, suggestions, etc.)

must (= necessity)
must (= conclude;18-ci dərs)
mustn't

must or had to
must
mustn't


We sometimes use a modal verb in a report when there is no modal verb in the original:

  • 'You're not allowed to smoke here.' -> She told me that I mustn't smoke there.
  • 'My advice is to look for a new job now.' -> She said that I should look for a new job now.

The verbs could, would, should, might, needn't, ought to, used to, and could have, should have, etc. don't change in the report:

  • 'I could meet you at the airport.' -> He said that he could meet us at the airport.
  • 'You should have contacted me earlier.' -> She said I should have contacted her earlier.

Will usually changes to would, can to could, and may to might. However, if the situation we are reporting still exists or is still in the future and the verb in the reporting clause has a present tense, we use will, can, and may in the reported clause (32-ci dərsə bax). Compare:

  • 'I'll be in Paris at Christmas.' -> She tells me she'll be in Paris at Christmas, and
  • 'Careful! You'll fall through the ice!' -> I warned him he would fall through the ice.

If the situation we are reporting still exists or is still in the future and the verb in the reporting clause has a past tense, then we can use either would or will, can or could, or may or might in the reported clause:

  • 'The problem can be solved.' -> They said the problem can/could be solved.

When shall is used in the original to talk about the future, we use would in the report:

  • 'I shall (I'll) call you on Monday.' -> She told me she would call me on Monday.

However, when shall is used in offers, requests for advice and confirmation, etc. then we can use should in the report, but not shall or would:

  • 'Where shall I put this box?' -> He asked where he should put the box.

When must is used in the original to say that it is necessary to do something, we can usually use either must or had to in the report, although had to is more natural in speech:

  • 'You must be home by 9 o'clock.' -> She said I must/had to be home by 9 o'clock.

However, when must is used in the original to conclude that something (has) happened or that something is true, then we use must, not had to, in the report:

  • 'I keep forgetting things. I must be getting old.' -> Neil said he must be getting old.

If mustn't is used in the original, we can use mustn't in the report but not didn't have to:

  • 'You mustn't tell my brother.' -> He warned me that I mustn't tell his brother.

 


Diqqət. Qeydiyyatdan keçib hesaba daxil olmayan istifadəçilər ancaq hər dərsin birinci hissəsini görə bilir. Eləcə də testləri yalnız hesaba daxil olmuş qeydiyyatlı istifadəçilər görə və həll edə bilər. Dərslərdən tam faydalanmaq üçün əgər hesabınız varsa sağ sütunda müvafiq bölmədən email-parol yazaraq daxil olun, yoxdursa, qeydiyyatdan keçin.


Yeni dərs


Günün sözləri
Günün sözləri artıq yeni bölmə şəklində fəaliyyət göstərir. Keçid üçün düyməyə klikləyin Günün sözləri
Elan lövhəsi
Artıq 641 istifadəçi GOLD status əldə edərək üstünlüklərdən faydalanıb. Bəs siz?
Üzvlər üçün giriş
Emailiniz:
Parol:
Parolu unutmusunuz?
Qeydiyyatdan keçməmisiniz?  İndi üzv olun!

Xaricidil.net rəsmi bloqu Xaricidil.net Facebook səhifəsi Xaricidil.net Twitter kanalı Xaricidil.net bloqunun RSS kanalı Xaricidil.net Youtube kanalı