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Dərs


Növbəti dərsə keçid və ya cari dərsin davamı səhifənin aşağı hissəsindədir.


Dərs 35: 1/5 - Qrammatika dərsləri. (seçdiyiniz səviyyə: advanced)

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Verb tense in the reported clause

When the situation described in the reported clause is in the past when we are reporting it, we use a past tense (past simple, past continuous, etc.):

  • 'I'm leaving!' -» Bob announced that he was leaving.
  • 'I don't want anything to eat.' -» Mark said that he didn't want anything to eat.
  • 'Are you going to London? -» Connie asked me if I was going to London.

When the situation described in the reported clause was already in the past when it was spoken about originally, we often use the past perfect to report it:

  • 'We have found the missing girl.' -* Last night police said that they had found the missing girl.

However, if it is clear from the context that one event took place before another, then it may not be necessary to indicate this by using the past perfect and we use the past simple instead:

  • 'I've sent out the invitations. I did it well before the wedding.' -» She reassured me that she sent out the invitations well before the wedding, (or...had sent...)


When the situation described in the reported clause is a permanent/habitual situation, or still exists or is relevant at the time we are reporting it, then we use a present tense (or present perfect) if we also use a present tense for the verb in the reporting clause:

  • Dr Weir thinks that he spends about 5 minutes on a typical appointment with a patient.
  • US scientists claim that they have developed a new vaccine against malaria.

Note that the present perfect focuses attention on the result of the action, not the action itself.

However, when we use a past tense in the reporting clause we can use either a present or past tense (or present perfect or past perfect) in the reported clause:

  • She argued that Carl is/was the best person for the job.
  • They noted that the rate of inflation has/had slowed down.

Choosing a present tense (or present perfect) in the reported clause emphasises that the situation being reported still exists or is still relevant when we report it.

If we want to show we are not sure that what we are reporting is necessarily true, or that a situation may not still exist now, we prefer a past rather than a present tense. Compare:

  • Sarah told me that she has two houses. (= might suggest that this is true) and
  • Sarah told me that she had two houses. (= might suggest either that this is perhaps not true, or that she once had two houses but doesn't have two houses now)


Verb tense in the reporting clause
When we report something that was said or thought in the past, the verb in the reporting clause is often in a past tense:

  • Just before her wedding, she revealed that she had been married before.

When we report current news, opinions, etc. we can use a present tense for the verb in the reporting clause. In some cases, either a present or past tense is possible, although we prefer a present tense to emphasise that what was said is true or still relevant when we report it:

  • She says that she'll have to close the shop unless business improves, (or ...said...)

We often prefer a present rather than a past tense -it

  • to report information that we have been told or heard, but don't know whether it is true:
    I hear you're unhappy with your job.

  • to report what is said by some authority:
    The law says that no-one under the age of 16 can buy a lottery ticket.
  • to report what many people say:
    Every teacher I've spoken to tells me that standards of spelling are in decline.

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