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Dərs


Növbəti dərsə keçid və ya cari dərsin davamı səhifənin aşağı hissəsindədir.


Dərs 33: 1/5 - Qrammatika dərsləri. (seçdiyiniz səviyyə: advanced)

Reporting statements: that-clauses

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When we report statements, we often use a that-clause in the reported clause:

  • He said (that) he was enjoying his work.
  • The members of the Security Council warned that further action may be taken.

After the more common reporting verbs such as agree, mention, notice, promise, say, and think, we often leave out that, particularly in informal speech. However, it is less likely to be left out -

* after less common reporting verbs such as complain, confide, deny, grumble, speculate, warn (and after the common reporting verbs answer, argue, and reply)
* in formal writing
* if the that-clause doesn't immediately follow the verb:

  • She agreed with her parents and brothers that it would be safer to buy a car than a motorbike, (rather than ...and brothers it would be safer...)


Some reporting verbs which are followed by a that-clause have an alternative with an object to-infinitive (often to be), although the alternatives are often rather formal. Compare:

  • I felt that the results were satisfactory.    and    I felt the results to be satisfactory.
  • They declared that the vote was invalid.   and     They declared the vote to be invalid.

Other verbs like this include acknowledge, assume, believe, consider, expect, find, presume, report, think, understand.


If we use a that-clause after the verb notify in an active form, then we must include an object between the verb and the ffcar-clause, and this object can't be a prepositional object:

  • I notified the bank that I had changed my address. (but not I notified that I .../I notified to the bank that I ...)

Other verbs like this include assure, convince, inform, persuade, reassure, remind, tell.

With the verbs advise, promise, show, teach, and warn, an object before a that-dause is not always necessary:

  • They promised (me) that they would come to the party.
  • The government has advised that tourists should leave the country immediately. (or The government has advised tourists that they should leave the country immediately.)


After some verbs we can use a that-clause with or without a personal object before the thar-clause. However, if we do include an object, we put a preposition before it.

* After some verbs we use to:

  • She admitted (to me) that she was seriously ill.
  • I pointed out (to the driver) that he had parked across the entrance.

Other verbs like this include announce, complain, confess, explain, indicate, mention, propose, recommend, report, say, suggest.

* After some verbs we use with:

  • We agreed (with Susan) that the information should go no further.
  • I checked (with them) that they were free on Thursday.

Other verbs like this include argue, disagree, joke.

* After the verbs ask, demand and require we use of:

  • The club asks (of its members) that they pay their fees by 31st December.
  • The company demands (of its staff) that they should be at work by 8.30.

This pattern is usually used in formal contexts. Less formally we can use a to-infinitive clause after ask and require (e.g. The club asks its members to pay their fees by 31st December). However, we can't use a ro-infinitive clause after demand (not The company demands its staff to...).


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