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Dərs


Növbəti dərsə keçid və ya cari dərsin davamı səhifənin aşağı hissəsindədir.


Dərs 31: 1/5 - Qrammatika dərsləri. (seçdiyiniz səviyyə: advanced)

Verb -ing forms and infinitives -- 2

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After some verbs we need to include an object before a to-infinitive in active sentences:

  • The police warned everyone to stay inside with their windows closed, (not The police warned to stay...)
  • My teachers didn't encourage me to work hard at school, (not My teachers didn't encourage to work...)

There are many other verbs like this including advise, allow, believe, cause, command, enable, encourage, entitle, force, invite, order, persuade, remind, show, teach, tell.
After other verbs, however, such as agree, consent, fail, hope, manage, offer, pretend, refuse, start, threaten, volunteer, we can't include an object before a to-infinitive:

  • The shop refused to accept his cheque, (not The shop refused him to accept his cheque.)
  • We've decided to leave early, (not We've decided us to leave early.)

After some verbs, including apply, arrange, ask, campaign, plan, and wait, we have to put a preposition, usually for, immediately after the verb before an object to-infinitive:

  • We waited for the taxi to come before saying goodbye, (not We waited the taxi to come...)
  • They arranged for Jane to stay in London, (not They arranged Jane to stay...) After apply, ask and campaign, the to-infinitive is often passive:
  • They applied for the court appearance to be postponed.

Other verbs can be followed by different prepositions object to-infinitive. For example:
*   at object to-infinitive (go on (= to criticise continually), keep on (= to talk about something many times), scream, yell)

  • I shouted at the man to open the door.

* on object to-infinitive (call (= to officially ask someone to do something), count, prevail, rely)

  • We're depending on you to find a solution soon.

* to object to-infinitive (appeal, gesture, motion)

  • He closed the door and signalled to the pilot to take off.

A number of other to-infinitive and -ing forms can also follow verbs -ft

* verb negative to-infinitive and negative -ing forms:

  1. We decided not to go to Paris after all. (compare The people didn't decide to go to war, it was their political leaders.)
  2. Some of my friends have considered not going to college because of the cost, (compare I haven't considered going to college - I don't want to go on studying after school.)

* verb to have past participle. Compare:

  1. Can you hear that strange noise? It seems to happen every time I turn on the tap. and
  2. The accident seems to have happened at around 1.00 p.m. yesterday.

This form is often used to give an opinion (with verbs like seem and appear) about a past event, or to report what is or was said (with passive verbs like is/was alleged, believed, said, thought) about past events:

  • Simons is alleged to have assaulted a police officer.

*   verb having past participle. The verb -ing and verb having past participle forms have a similar meaning with these verbs.

Compare:

  • I now regret buying the car.   and      
  • I now regret having bought the car.

This form is most often used with the verbs admit, deny, forget, recall, regret and remember.


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