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Dərs


Növbəti dərsə keçid və ya cari dərsin davamı səhifənin aşağı hissəsindədir.


Dərs 30: 1/5 - Qrammatika dərsləri. (seçdiyiniz səviyyə: advanced)

Verb -ing forms and infinitives -- 1

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Some verbs can be followed either by an object -ing or a possessive -ing with a similar meaning, although the possessive -ing form is usually considered to be rather formal:

  1. I resented Tom winning the prize, {more formally I resented Tom's winning the prize.)
  2. Mary recalled him buying the book, (more formally Mary recalled his buying the book.)

Other verbs like this include verbs of '(dis)liking' such as detest, (dis)approve of, (dis)like, hate, love, object to, and verbs of 'thinking' such as forget, imagine, remember, think of. Notice that we only use a possessive form (Tom's, his) here to talk about a person or a group of people:
□  I remembered the horse winning the race, (but not ...the horse's winning...)
Some verbs can be followed by to -ing where to is a preposition:
□   She confessed to stealing the money. □ You don't object to working late tonight, do you? Other verbs like this include adapt, adjust, admit, look forward, own up, resort. Note that these verbs can also be followed by to noun phrase:
□  She confessed to the crime.                          □ You don't object to the work, do you?
Other verbs can be followed by different prepositions -ing. For example: it by -ing (begin, close, end, finish (off/up), open, start (off/out))
□   Can you begin by cleaning the floors, and then do the windows? on -ing or on object -ing (concentrate, count, depend, focus, insist, rely)

  1. Clare insisted on (Jack) wearing a suit to the party. ir of -ing or of object -ing (approve, hear, know, speak, talk, tell)
  2. I don't approve of (them/ their) hunting animals for sport. •ir object from -ing (deter, discourage, keep, prevent, prohibit, stop)

□  The noise from next door prevented me from sleeping.
Some verbs (feel, hear, notice, observe, overhear, see, watch) can be followed by an object and then either by an -ing form or a bare infinitive, but their meanings may be slightly different. An -ing form suggests that an action is in progress, while a bare infinitive suggests a completed action. Compare:
□  I saw them playing football from my window,   and   □ I saw him smash the bottle.
Also, an -ing form can suggest that we watch, hear, etc. some of an action, but not from start to finish, while a bare infinitive suggests that we watch, hear, etc. the whole action from start to finish. Compare:

  1. I was able to watch them building the new car park from my office window, and
  2. I watched him climb through the window, and then I called the police.

After the verbs dare and help we can use either a bare infinitive or to-infinitive:
□  I was angry with him, but I didn't dare (ro) say anything.
□  We hope the poster campaign will help (to) raise awareness of the problem. When dare has an object, we can only use a to-infinitive. Compare:
□  I dared him to cross the river, (not I dared him cross...) and   □ I helped them (to) pack.
After have, let and make we can use an object bare infinitive but not to-infinitive:

  1. His exam results might make him work harder, (not ...might make him to work...)
  2. I had Beth clean up her bedroom before I let her go out to play.

We use a bare infinitive after make and let in the phrases make do (= to manage to deal with a situation by using what is available) and let go (= to stop holding something):

  • Jim had borrowed my new bike, so I had to make do with my old one.
  • 'Don't let go!'

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