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Dərs


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Dərs 29: 1/5 - Qrammatika dərsləri. (seçdiyiniz səviyyə: advanced)

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Some verbs can be followed by two objects. Usually the first object (= the Indirect Object (IO)) is a person or group of people and the second object (= the Direct Object (DO)) is a thing:

  1. Can you bring me (= IO) some milk (= DO) from the shops?
  2. I read Suzanne (= IO) a story (= DO).
  3. He made himself (= IO) a cup of coffee. (= DO).

Many verbs that can have two objects may also be used with a DO only (e.g. I read a story).
With many verbs that can have two objects, it is possible to reverse the order of the objects if we put for or to before the IO (this is then called a prepositional object). Compare:

  1. I built my daughter a doll's house,   and   □ I built a doll's house for my daughter.
  2. Can you pass me that bandage?      and   □ Can you pass that bandage to me?

We often use this pattern if we want to focus particular attention on the object after for/to. We also use it if the IO is a lot longer than the DO:
□  Jasmin taught music to a large number of children at the school, {not Jasmin taught a large number of children at the school music.)
We use for object with verbs such as book, build, buy, catch, choose, cook, fetch, find, get, make, order, pour, save. For suggests that the IO receives and benefits from goods or services. We use to object with verbs such as award, give, hand, lend, offer, owe, pass, show, teach, tell, throw. To suggests a transfer of the DO to the IO.
If the DO is a pronoun, a pattern with DO preposition IO is usual. Patterns without a preposition are avoided because they are considered to be bad style:

  1. I gave them to Tim. (rather than I gave Tim them./I gave them Tim.)
  2. We bought it for them, (rather than We bought them it./We bought it them.)

The verbs bring, leave, pay, play, post, read, sell, send, sing, take, and write can be used with either for or to. Often there is a difference in meaning: to suggests that there is a transfer of something to someone, and for suggests that someone benefits from something. Compare:
□  I hadn't got time to visit Ann, so I wrote a letter to her. and
□   Ann had broken her wrist and couldn't hold a pen, so I wrote a letter for her. Sometimes, however, the meaning is very similar:
□  He played the piece to (or for) me.                      □ Can you sing that song again to (or for) us?
Notice that when object object is used after these verbs it usually has a similar meaning to the verb with object to object. For example:
□  I sold him the car. (means I sold the car to him, not I sold the car for him.)
Some verbs that are followed by two objects cannot have their objects reversed with for/to:
□   We all envied him his lifestyle, (but not We all envied his lifestyle for/to him.) Other verbs like this include allow, ask, cost, deny, forgive, guarantee, permit, refuse.
Some verbs can only have a second object if this is a prepositional object with to (see also Unit 22A). Compare:

  1. She described the situation, or
  2. She described the situation to me. (but not She described me the situation.) and
  3. She told this joke, or She told this joke to me. or She told me this joke.

Other verbs like describe include admit, announce, demonstrate, explain, introduce, mention, point out, prove, report, say, suggest.
Some verbs can only have a second object if this is a prepositional object with for. Compare:
□  He fixed the tap.   or  □ He fixed the tap for me. (but not He fixed me the tap.) and
□   I booked a room,   or  □ I booked a room for her.   or   □ I booked her a room. Other verbs like fix include collect, mend, and repair.


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