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Dərs


Növbəti dərsə keçid və ya cari dərsin davamı səhifənin aşağı hissəsindədir.


Dərs 28: 1/5 - Qrammatika dərsləri. (seçdiyiniz səviyyə: advanced)

Verbs, objects and complements

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Some verbs can be either transitive or intransitive, allowing us to focus on either the person or thing performing the action, or the person or thing affected by the action. Compare:

  • She closed the door. (transitive)   and   The door closed. (intransitive)
  • I've ripped my shirt. (transitive)   and   My shirt has ripped. (intransitive)

Verbs like this are often used to talk about some kind of change. Other examples are begin, bend, break, burn, change, decrease, drop, finish, increase, move, open, shut, start, vary, wake.

Some transitive verbs don't need an object when the meaning is clear from the context:

  • He has smoked (cigarettes) since he was 10.
  • She plays (the saxophone) beautifully.

Other verbs like this include answer, ask, change, cook, dance, drink, drive, eat, fail, park, phone, read, sing, study, wash, wash up, wave, win, write.


After some verbs we usually add a complement - a phrase which completes the meaning of a verb, noun or adjective — which is an adverb or prepositional phrase:

  • The disease originated in Britain, (not The disease originated. We need to add something about where or how it originated.)

Other verbs commonly have a complement but may not. Compare:

  •   He paused for a few moments,   and   He paused, (no complement needed)

Some verbs are commonly followed by a particular preposition or prepositions and then an object (see also Unit 94):

  • We had to deal with hundreds of complaints, (not We had to deal.)
  • I'm sure that blue car belongs to Matthew. (not I'm sure that blue car belongs.)

Here are some more verbs with the prepositions which usually follow them: adhere to, aspire to, culminate in/with, detract from, differentiate between, incline to/towards, specialise in.

Some verbs are usually followed by an object prepositional phrase complement:

  • I always associate pizza with Italy.      {not I always associate pizza.)
  • She put the report on the floor.                    (not She put the report.)

Here are some more verbs with the prepositions which usually begin the complement: attribute ...to, base...on/upon, equate...with, inflict...on, mistake...for, regard...as/with, remind...of.

Some verbs are often followed by an object adjective (or adjective phrase) complement:

  • The people of this country will hold the government responsible.
  • Beckman pronounced himself fit for the match.

Other verbs that can be followed by an object adjective complement include assume, believe, consider, declare, find, judge, prove, report, think. The object after declare, find, pronounce and prove is often a reflexive pronoun (himself, etc.).

Notice that when these verbs are used with an object adjective complement the sentence is usually rather formal. Less formal alternatives can be made by adding to be after the object or by using a that-chuse:

  • Dr Adams argues that house prices will fall, but other economists believe the opposite true, (or less formally ...believe the opposite to be true, or ...believe that the opposite is true.)

Note that many of the verbs in this unit can be followed by a number of patterns, sometimes associated with different meanings. Compare, for example:

  • She found her ring,   and
  • She found herself in an embarrassing situation.

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