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Dərs


Növbəti dərsə keçid və ya cari dərsin davamı səhifənin aşağı hissəsindədir.


Dərs 21: 1/5 - Qrammatika dərsləri. (seçdiyiniz səviyyə: advanced)

Birləşdirici fellər: be, appear, seem; become, get və s.

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Sifət və ya isim ifadəsi feldən sonra gəldikdə və mübtədanı təsvir etdikdə və ya onun nə, ya da kim olduğunu bildirdikdə həmin sifət və ya isim ifadəsi "complement" fel isə birləşdirici fel olur:

Ian is a doctor. 
She seemed unable to concentrate.
The house became Peter's in 1980.

Daha çox işlənən birləşdirici fel to be-dir.

Others are to do with 'being', e.g. keep, prove, remain, stay; 'becoming', e.g. become, come, end up, grow, turn out; and 'seeming', e.g. appear, look, seem, sound. Most of these verbs can be followed by either an adjective or noun phrase (e.g. It sounds nice/a nice place). However, when they are used as linking verbs, come and grow (e.g. come to know, grow thoughtful) can't be followed by a noun phrase, and keep is only followed by a noun if an adjective follows it (e.g. It kept him awake).

After the verbs appear (= seems true), look (= seem), prove, seem, and turn out we can often either include or omit to be:

The room appears (to be) brighter than when I last saw it.
She proved (to be) an extremely enthusiastic teacher.

However, following these verbs to be is usually included before the adjectives alive, alone, asleep, and awake, and before the -ing forms of verbs:

I didn't go in because she appeared to be asleep, (not ...she appeared asleep.)
The roads seem to be getting icy so drive carefully, (not The roads seem getting...)

Before a noun we include to be when the noun tells us what the subject is, but can often leave it out when we give our opinion of the person or thing in the subject. We tend to leave out to be in more formal English. Compare:

He walked into what seemed to be a cave, (not ...what seemed a cave.)
She seems (to be) a very efficient salesperson.

We use the linking verb become to describe a process of change. A number of other linking verbs can be used instead of become, including come, get, go, grow, turn (into).
We use get rather than become: in informal speech and writing before difficult, ill, interested, pregnant, suspicious, unhappy, and worried; in imperatives; and in phrases such as get changed (clothes), get dressed, get married/divorced:

I first got suspicious when he looked into all the cars, (more formally ...became suspicious...)
Don't get upset about it!                                 
Where did you live before you got married}

We prefer become to talk about a more abstract or technical process of change with words such as adapted, apparent, aware, convinced, infected, irrelevant, obvious, and recognised:

He became recognised as an expert.
Their bodies have become adapted to high altitudes.

We use become, not get, if there is a noun phrase after the linking verb:

Dr Smith became an adviser to the government.
She became a good tennis player.

We use go or turn, not usually get or become, when we talk about colours changing:

The traffic lights turned/went green and I pulled away.

We often use go to talk about changes, particularly to unwanted situations. We use go, not turn or get, with deaf, blind, bald, or to say that someone behaves in a mad or excited way; and also with go bad/off/mouldy/rotten (about old food), go bust (= a company closes because it has run out of money), go dead (= when a telephone stops working), go missing, and go wrong:

The children went completely crazy at the party. □ My computer's gone wrong again. Notice, however, some common exceptions: get ill, get old, get tired.

After the verbs come, get, and grow (but not after become) we can use a ro-infinitive. Come and grow are often used to talk about gradual change:

I eventually came/grew to appreciate his work, (nor ...became to appreciate his work.)
I soon got to know their names, (not ...became to know their names.)


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